Reading and Learning in the Digital World (READI)
Summer School of the Department of Psychology 2018
Applicants can decide between different topics for the first (Monday/Tuesday) and the second (Thursday/Friday) sessions. Please note: Four of the topics are offered as one-day courses; it is possible to choose two one-day courses on Monday/Tuesday and Thursday/Friday.
Early learning in the home literacy environment
Teacher: Frank Niklas
Formal teaching of reading starts when children enter school. However, children develop important precursor abilities long before school entry and most of this early learning happens in the context of the family. In this session, we will discuss the role the home literacy environment plays for the development of children's linguistic and literacy competencies. Further, we will have a closer look at family interventions that support the quality of the home literacy environment and thus children's learning. Finally, we will discuss new technological possibilities afforded by learning apps on smart phones and tablet computers that are very common nowadays in families and debate their impact on children's learning in the home literacy environment.
Digital competencies at the workplace
Teachers: Andrea Beinicke & Maren Oberländer
This session will address the relevance of life-long learning for employees for survival in today's talent market. The following research areas will be addressed and discussed: How does continuous learning in today's and future work settings look like? What are core digital competencies of employees? Within this sessions, we will discuss recent frameworks of digital competencies and outline how digital competencies can be assessed.
Metacognitive judgments in multimedia learning
Teacher: Christoph Mengelkamp
Learners often have to regulate their learning themselves in multimedia learning: They select the learning materials, decide how much time and effort they invest, how they allocate the time to different materials etc. Besides motivational issues, metacognition is a crucial part of such self-regulated learning processes. The hot-topic session will focus on metacognitive monitoring while learning from texts, texts and pictures, and worked examples. Different types of metacognitive judgments, the absolute vs. relative accuracy of these judgments, interventions that increase judgment accuracy, and their effects on the learning process and learning outcomes will be discussed. Parts of the session will be given as a lecture with short exercises. Furthermore, participants are invited to present selected papers or their own research or research ideas.
The potential of contemporary propaganda to foster critical media literacy skills
Teachers: Silke Grafe & Christian Seyferth-Zapf
Recent statistics reveal that especially youths and young adults struggle when they are asked to evaluate the credibility of information from electronic sources. These findings prove a lack of fundamental skills in the field of media literacy. The session give an insight into empirical evaluation projects for different target groups aiming at fostering critical media literacy skills in the context of fake news and digital propaganda. Furthermore, we will discuss different aspects that arise in the field of propaganda research as well as teaching and learning.
The assessment of information sources' credibility in multiple documents reading
Teacher: Monica Macedo-Rouet
Credibility can be defined as the perceived trustworthiness and expertise of an information source. Making credibility judgments can be particularly challenging in the context of multiple documents reading (e.g., on the internet) because sources are not always salient, and/or are defined by more or less abstract cues. In this session, we will review studies that analyze the criteria that adults, adolescents, and children use to assess the credibility of information sources from multiple documents. We will also discuss how documents can be designed to support credibility assessment in different settings.
Current issues of discourse processing: General developmental findings
Teachers: Katharina Diergarten, Juliane Hauf, Gerhild Nieding, Benedikt Seger, & Wienke Wannagat
Theories of discourse comprehension are predominantly based on research with adult recipients. In this session, we will evaluate and discuss cognitive mechanisms underlying comprehension, such as constructing different kinds of inferences in general and how these develop during childhood. Another focus will be on embodied theories of language comprehension, which assume that a recipient mentally simulates the objects, situations, or events that are represented by a text. We will evaluate how mental simulations can contribute to comprehension throughout cognitive development.
The power of narratives to change attitudes and beliefs
Teachers: Markus Appel & Tobias Richter
Much of the information we encounter on a daily basis - in the digital as well as in the analogue world - is presented in form of a story or narrative. Examples include short stories and novels, movies and TV series, political propaganda, news reports, or customer reviews. The session will be about the power of (fictional) stories to change attitudes and beliefs about the world and about ourselves. We will review and discuss current research and theoretical models that specify the cognitive and affective processes underlying narrative effects.
Prediction and prevention of reading difficulties in different orthographies
Teacher: Peter Marx
Precursors of literacy acquisition (e.g., phonological awareness) can be measured before school entry to identify children at risk for reading difficulties. Classificatory and correlational approaches will be addressed. The accuracy of the prediction will be discussed and also the dependence of the accuracy on the consistency of the orthography. Fostering preliteracy skills can prevent reading difficulties. The effectivity of prevention programs will be analyzed.
Fluency and reading comprehension intervention in educational settings
Teacher: Wolfgang Lenhard
The process of reconstructing meaning and establishing mental models from texts is complex and requires many skills. This competence is both a central target and a prerequisite of academic success in schools. The session outlines how reading comprehension develops quantitatively and which determinants are relevant to become a skilled reader. These factors also provide the starting points for diagnostics and intervention. Based on the current state of empirical educational research, we will have a look at the effectivity of the different approaches and we will discuss the influence of linguistic specifics of the language systems on learning outcomes.
Afternoon Methods Workshop
Workshops on research methods (with hands-on parts) are offerend for groups of 5 to 20 participants (depending on the topic) and last one afternoon. Participants can choose between the following workshops:
Data handling and data analysis in R: An introduction
Teacher: Benjamin Piest
R is a free software environment for running statistical analyses. The workshop is aimed at researchers without any background knowledge of R. After this workshop, you will master the basics of this language: (1) How to install R and R-Studio, (2) how to import and export data from different sources, (3) how to re-organize and clean your data, (4) how to use and perform descriptive and basic inferential statistics. You will acquire these skills through learning R syntax that you can store, annotate, and adapt for your own purposes.
Test construction and test analysis with R
Teacher: Wolfgang Lenhard
The free statistical environment R offers extremely flexible and advanced methods for applying psychometric analyses to tests. This workshop offers a hands-on-tutorial for young scientists with no or only basic experiences in R and explains psychometrics with the packages foreign, psych, TAM and eRM. We will walk through the program step by step and you can practice every analysis on your own computer.
Using eye-tracking to study reading of illustrated text
Teachers: Anne Schüler & Juliane Richter
Tracking a person's eyes while s/he is processing information in the physical or digital environment provides insights into where that person is looking, for how long, and in which order elements are attended. Importantly, beyond giving insights into perceptual processing, a fundamental assumption underlying the use of eye-tracking as a research methodology is that it also tells us something about a person's cognition. Attendees will obtain knowledge regarding the use of eye-tracking in research on reading illustrated digital texts and its different functions as illustrated by respective published studies. Moreover, they will acquire the methodological skills necessary to plan their own eye tracking studies.
Mixed-effects models with R: An introduction for reading researchers
Teacher: Julia Schindler
Reading researchers usually collect data that comprise multiple levels (e.g., persons nested in experimental items and experimental items nested in persons). Analyzing such data with ANOVA or Multiple Regression may lead to distorted results and flawed hypothesis tests. In contrast, mixed-effects models offer many advantages for efficiently analyzing multi-level data. This workshop will provide a brief introduction to mixed-effects models for data collected in experimental designs, including hands-on exercises with the R-package lme4.
Teachers: Lynn Huestegge & Aleksandra Pieczykolan
Eye-tracking allows for the unobstrusive measurement of eye movements. Thereby, this technique can be used to index attentional processes in many contexts, including reading and learning in the digital world. Within this workshop, participants will learn about differences between eye-tracking systems, we will provide suggestions on how to use these systems for different purposes and show how data acquisition and analysis might be optimized for inferring aspects of visual attention.
Using recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) to analyze the process of natural text reading
Teacher: Sebanstian Wallot
The process of naturalistic text reading - such as measured by response times, eye movements, or voice recordings - is very dynamic. On the one hand, this makes it difficult to analyze the process obtained from naturalistic text reading. On the other hand, the way in which the reading process changes over time also contains interesting information about reading, related to fluency and comprehension. This workshop provides a hands-on, R-based tutorial on applying processes data, and interpret the output of the analysis with regard to reader performance.
Modeling of large-scale reading process data
Teacher: Johannes Naumann
Large-scale assessments of reading and related domains are increasingly carried out by means of computers. This makes it possible to some extent to trace test-takers' interactions with the task stimulus and extract meaningful behavioral indices that can be used to predict, and tentatively explain task performance. When properties of individual items (i.e., tasks) are known, task behavior cannot only be tied to test-takers' aptitudes, but also to task demands, and their interaction, on large-scale database. Using the example of the OECD-run Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), this workshop will address how log files from computer-basecd large-scale assessments might be accessed and parsed for meaningful indices of student behavior, and how these indices might be used for model building, tying behavior to both student and task characteristics using generalized mixed models. As an example domain, we will use the "Digital Reading Assessment", which in the context of PISA was carried out in 2009 and 2012. Participants should be familiar with linear regression. Basic knowledge of R would be an advantage.
Measurement and analysis of peripheral-physiological processes in reading and learning with digital media
Teacher: Hannes Münchow
Peripheral physiological responses can indicate changes of affective and motivational states. Consequently, these measures provide additional information about the processing of written information during reading and learning with (digital) media. In this session, participants will be introduced into the core concepts of measuring, analyzing, and interpreting non-invasive peripheral-physiological measures like electrodermal activity, heart rate, and respiratory activity in reading and learning contexts using analogue and digital media.